Mobile
Action Join Donate
MarineBio Conservation Society Ocean Conservation Marine Life Species Database Education+Careers Projects Sponsors Contributors Photos Videos News Contact
pinterest

Horse-eye Jacks, Caranx latus

Loading species photos...
Loading species photos...

Description & Behavior

Horse-eye jacks, Caranx latus (Agassiz, 1831), aka black jacks, cabalis, false jacks, gallegos, horse eyes, horse eye jacks, horse-eyes, horse-eye crevalles, horse-eye trevally, jacks, and yellowjacks, reach up to 101 cm in length and weigh up to 13.4 kg. These fish have 8-9 dorsal spines, 20-22 dorsal soft rays, 2-3 anal spines and 16-17 anal soft rays. They have no spots on their pectoral fins. They may have a small spot on their gill covers. Their scutes (bony plates) tend to be dusky or blackish; their caudal (tail) fin is yellow. Their young have broad blackish bars on their bodies.

Horse-eye jacks are similar in body shape to other jacks in the Family Carangidae, but their head is not as blunt. Their fins are blackish as opposed to the yellow tinge of crevalle jacks. As their name indicates, their eyes are very large.

World Range & Habitat

Horse-eye jacks are found in the western Atlantic: New Jersey (USA), Bermuda, and the northern Gulf of Mexico to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Also found throughout the Caribbean. In the eastern Atlantic: St. Paul's Rocks, Ascension Island and two confirmed records from the Gulf of Guinea.

A pelagic schooling species usually found in offshore reefs within a depth range of 0 - 140 m though they are usually found at 0 - 20 m. Juveniles are encountered along shores of sandy beaches, also over muddy bottoms. May penetrate into brackish water and ascend rivers. Often approaches divers.

Feeding Behavior (Ecology)

Horse-eye jacks, Caranx latus, feed on small fishes, shrimps and other invertebrates.

Life History

Reproduces via dioecism (sexes are separate), fertilization is external with an unknown spawning frequency in June, July, and August off Cuba.

Conservation Status & Comments

Resilience to fishing pressure: Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years
Extinction vulnerability to fishing: High vulnerability (57 of 100)

Horse-eye jacks, Caranx latus, have been implicated in ciguatera poisoning. Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes.

References & Further Research

Caranx latus (Carangidae) Chooses Dock Pilings to Attack Silverside Schools: A Tactic to Interfere With Stereotyped Escape Behavior of Prey? - Michael J. Cermak, The Biological Bulletin - Boston University Marine Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole

Research Caranx latus » Barcode of Life ~ BioOne ~ Biodiversity Heritage Library ~ CITES ~ Cornell Macaulay Library [audio / video] ~ Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ~ ESA Online Journals ~ FishBase ~ Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department ~ GBIF ~ Google Scholar ~ ITIS ~ IUCN RedList (Threatened Status) ~ Marine Species Identification Portal ~ NCBI (PubMed, GenBank, etc.) ~ Ocean Biogeographic Information System ~ PLOS ~ SCIRIS ~ SIRIS ~ Tree of Life Web Project ~ UNEP-WCMC Species Database ~ WoRMS

Search for Horse-eye Jacks » ARKive ~ Ask.com ~ Bing ~ dmoz ~ Flickr ~ Google ~ OceanFootage ~ Picsearch ~ Wikipedia ~ Yahoo! Images ~ YouTube

Feedback & Citation

Start or join a discussion about this species below or send us an email to report any errors or submit suggestions for this page. We greatly appreciate all feedback!


~^~ surface

Help Protect and Restore Ocean Life

Help us protect and restore marine life by supporting our various online community-centered marine conservation projects that are effectively sharing the wonders of the ocean with millions each year around the world, raising a balanced awareness of the increasingly troubling and often very complex marine conservation issues that affect marine life and ourselves directly, providing support to marine conservation groups on the frontlines that are making real differences today, and the scientists, teachers and students involved in the marine life sciences. Join us today or show your support with a monthly donation.

With your support, most marine life and their ocean habitats can be protected, if not restored to their former natural levels of biodiversity. We sincerely thank our thousands of members, donors and sponsors, who have decided to get involved and support the MarineBio Conservation Society.